Jesus and Peter in Matthew’s Gospel.

Peter is the first disciple called by Jesus.
Matt 4:18-19 18

As he was walking by the Lake of Galilee he saw two brothers, Simon, who was called Peter, and his brother Andrew; they were making a cast into the lake with their net, for they were fishermen. 19 And he said to them, ‘Come after me and I will make you fishers of people.’

Jesus cures Peter’s mother in law.
Matt 8:14-15

14 And going into Peter’s house Jesus found Peter’s mother-in-law in bed and feverish.15 He touched her hand and the fever left her, and she got up and began to serve him.

Peter is always named first when the apostles are listed.
Matt 10:2-4

2 These are the names of the twelve apostles: first, Simon who is known as Peter, and his brother Andrew; James the son of Zebedee, and his brother John; 3 Philip and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the tax collector; James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus; 4 Simon the Zealot and Judas Iscariot, who was also his betrayer.

Peter walks to Jesus on the water.
Matt 14:27-29

27 But at once Jesus called out to them, saying, ‘Courage! It’s me! Don’t be afraid.’ 28 It was Peter who answered. ‘Lord,’ he said, ‘if it is you, tell me to come to you across the water.’29 Jesus said, ‘Come.’ Then Peter got out of the boat and started walking towards Jesus across the water,

Peter often acts as a spokesman for the apostles.
Matt 15:15-16 15 At this, Peter said to him, ‘Explain the parable for us.’ 16 Jesus replied, ‘Even you — don’t you yet understand?

Peter recognizes Jesus as the Christ, which is revealed to him by God Himself. Jesus calls Peter blessed. Jesus calls Peter the “rock” upon which He will build His church. Jesus gives to Peter the keys to the kingdom, a symbol of Christ’s authority (Rev 3:7). Jesus gives to Peter the power to bind and loose.
Matt 16:15-19

15 ‘But you,’ he said, ‘who do you say I am?’ 16 Then Simon Peter spoke up and said, ‘You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.’17 Jesus replied, ‘Simon son of Jonah, you are a blessed man! Because it was no human agency that revealed this to you but my Father in heaven.18 So I now say to you: You are Peter and on this rock I will build my community. And the gates of the underworld can never overpower it.19 I will give you the keys of the kingdom of Heaven: whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven; whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.’(See Isaiah 22: following verses and commentary.)

15 The Lord Yahweh Sabaoth says this: Go and find that steward, Shebna, the master of the palace:16 ‘What do you own here, who gave you the right for you to hew yourself a tomb here?’ He is hewing himself a tomb, is digging a resting-place for himself in the rock.17 But Yahweh will throw you away, strong as you are, will grasp you in his grip,18 will screw you up into a ball, a ball thrown into a vast space. There you will die, with your splendid chariots, disgrace to your master’s palace!19 I shall hound you from your office, I shall snatch you from your post20 and, when that day comes, I shall summon my servant Eliakim son of Hilkiah.21 I shall dress him in your tunic, I shall put your sash round his waist, I shall invest him with your authority; and he will be a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem and to the House of Judah.22 I shall place the key of David’s palace on his shoulder; when he opens, no one will close, when he closes, no one will open.23 I shall drive him like a nail into a firm place; and he will become a throne of glory for his family.24 ‘On him will depend all the glory of his family, the descendants and offspring, all the vessels of small capacity too, from cups to pitchers. 25 That day, declares Yahweh Sabaoth, the nail driven into a firm place will give way, will be torn out and fall. And the whole load hanging on it will be lost. For Yahweh has spoken.’ Matt 17:1-4 1 Six days later, Jesus took with him Peter and James and his brother John and led them up a high mountain by themselves. 2 There in their presence he was transfigured: his face shone like the sun and his clothes became as dazzling as light. 3 And suddenly Moses and Elijah appeared to them; they were talking with him. 4 Then Peter spoke to Jesus. ‘Lord,’ he said, ‘it is wonderful for us to be here; if you want me to, I will make three shelters here, one for you, one for Moses and one for Elijah.’

Jesus pays the half shekel tax for Peter and Himself.
Matt 17:24-27

24 When they reached Capernaum, the collectors of the half-shekel came to Peter and said, ‘Does your master not pay the half-shekel?’ 25 ‘Yes,’ he replied, and went into the house. But before he could speak, Jesus said, ‘Simon, what is your opinion? From whom do earthly kings take toll or tribute? From their sons or from foreigners?’ 26 And when he replied, ‘From foreigners,’ Jesus said, ‘Well then, the sons are exempt. 27 However, so that we shall not be the downfall of others, go to the lake and cast a hook; take the first fish that rises, open its mouth and there you will find a shekel; take it and give it to them for me and for yourself.’

Peter often asks Jesus for clarification.
Matt 18:21-22 21

Then Peter went up to him and said, ‘Lord, how often must I forgive my brother if he wrongs me? As often as seven times?’ 22 Jesus answered, ‘Not seven, I tell you, but seventy-seven times.

Peter again acts as a spokesman for the apostles.
Matt 19:27-29 27

Then Peter answered and said, ‘Look, we have left everything and followed you. What are we to have, then?’ 28 Jesus said to them, ‘In truth I tell you, when everything is made new again and the Son of man is seated on his throne of glory, you yourselves will sit on twelve thrones to judge the twelve tribes of Israel. 29 And everyone who has left houses, brothers, sisters, father, mother, children or land for the sake of my name will receive a hundred times as much, and also inherit eternal life.

Jesus points out to Peter his weaknesses.Here again, Peter, listed first, is part of Jesus’ inner circle. Jesus reprimands Peter, expecting more of him than James and John.
Matt 26:31-41,57-58

31 Then Jesus said to them, ‘You will all fall away from me tonight, for the scripture says: I shall strike the shepherd and the sheep of the flock will be scattered,32 but after my resurrection I shall go ahead of you to Galilee.’33 At this, Peter said to him, ‘Even if all fall away from you, I will never fall away.’34 Jesus answered him, ‘In truth I tell you, this very night, before the cock crows, you will have disowned me three times.’35 Peter said to him, ‘Even if I have to die with you, I will never disown you.’ And all the disciples said the same.36 Then Jesus came with them to a plot of land called Gethsemane; and he said to his disciples, ‘Stay here while I go over there to pray.’37 He took Peter and the two sons of Zebedee with him. And he began to feel sadness and anguish.38 Then he said to them, ‘My soul is sorrowful to the point of death. Wait here and stay awake with me.’39 And going on a little further he fell on his face and prayed. ‘My Father,’ he said, ‘if it is possible, let this cup pass me by. Nevertheless, let it be as you, not I, would have it.’40 He came back to the disciples and found them sleeping, and he said to Peter, ‘So you had not the strength to stay awake with me for one hour?41 Stay awake, and pray not to be put to the test. The spirit is willing enough, but human nature is weak.’57 The men who had arrested Jesus led him off to the house of Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were assembled.58 Peter followed him at a distance right to the high priest’s palace, and he went in and sat down with the attendants to see what the end would be.

Peter’s denial is recounted.
Matt 26:69-75.

69 Meanwhile Peter was sitting outside in the courtyard, and a servant-girl came up to him saying, ‘You, too, were with Jesus the Galilean.’70 But he denied it in front of them all. ‘I do not know what you are talking about,’ he said.71 When he went out to the gateway another servant-girl saw him and said to the people there, ‘This man was with Jesus the Nazarene.’72 And again, with an oath, he denied it, ‘I do not know the man.’73 A little later the bystanders came up and said to Peter, ‘You are certainly one of them too! Why, your accent gives you away.’74 Then he started cursing and swearing, ‘I do not know the man.’ And at once the cock crowed, 75 and Peter remembered what Jesus had said, ‘Before the cock crows you will have disowned me three times.’ And he went outside and wept bitterly.
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