Jesus changes Simon’s name to Cephas, which means Rock.
40 One of these two who became followers of Jesus after hearing what John had said was Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter. 41 The first thing Andrew did was to find his brother and say to him, ‘We have found the Messiah’ — which means the Christ- 42 and he took Simon to Jesus. Jesus looked at him and said, ‘You are Simon son of John; you are to be called Cephas’ — which means Rock.
In John 6, Peter, like the other disciples, does not understand Jesus’ teaching, but he believes, once again answering Jesus’ call to follow Him.
John 6:57-60, 60-69
57 As the living Father sent me and I draw life from the Father, so whoever eats me will also draw life from me. 58 This is the bread which has come down from heaven; it is not like the bread our ancestors ate: they are dead, but anyone who eats this bread will live for ever. 59 This is what he taught at Capernaum in the synagogue.60 After hearing it, many of his followers said, ‘This is intolerable language. How could anyone accept it?’ 66 After this, many of his disciples went away and accompanied him no more. 67 Then Jesus said to the Twelve, ‘What about you, do you want to go away too?’ 68 Simon Peter answered, ‘Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the message of eternal life, 69 and we believe; we have come to know that you are the Holy One of God.’
Peter shows his impetuosity again at the washing of the feet.
3 Jesus knew that the Father had put everything into his hands, and that he had come from God and was returning to God, 4 and he got up from table, removed his outer garments and, taking a towel, wrapped it round his waist; 5 he then poured water into a basin and began to wash the disciples’ feet and to wipe them with the towel he was wearing. 6 He came to Simon Peter, who said to him, ‘Lord, are you going to wash my feet?’ 7 Jesus answered, ‘At the moment you do not know what I am doing, but later you will understand.’ 8 ‘Never!’ said Peter. ‘You shall never wash my feet.’ Jesus replied, ‘If I do not wash you, you can have no share with me.’ Simon Peter said, 9 ‘Well then, Lord, not only my feet, but my hands and my head as well!’ 10 Jesus said, ‘No one who has had a bath needs washing, such a person is clean all over. You too are clean, though not all of you are.’ 11 He knew who was going to betray him, and that was why he said, ‘though not all of you are’. 12 When he had washed their feet and put on his outer garments again he went back to the table. ‘Do you understand’, he said, ‘what I have done to you? 13 You call me Master and Lord, and rightly; so I am. 14 If I, then, the Lord and Master, have washed your feet, you must wash each other’s feet. 15 I have given you an example so that you may copy what I have done to you.
Peter asks Jesus who will betray Him.
18 I am not speaking about all of you: I know the ones I have chosen; but what scripture says must be fulfilled: ‘He who shares my table takes advantage of me. 19 I tell you this now, before it happens, so that when it does happen you may believe that I am He. 20 In all truth I tell you, whoever welcomes the one I send, welcomes me, and whoever welcomes me, welcomes the one who sent me.’ 21 Having said this, Jesus was deeply disturbed and declared, ‘In all truth I tell you, one of you is going to betray me.’ 22 The disciples looked at each other, wondering whom he meant. 23 The disciple Jesus loved was reclining next to Jesus; 24 Simon Peter signed to him and said, ‘Ask who it is he means,’ 25 so leaning back close to Jesus’ chest he said, ‘Who is it, Lord?’ 26 Jesus answered, ‘It is the one to whom I give the piece of bread that I dip in the dish.’ And when he had dipped the piece of bread he gave it to Judas son of Simon Iscariot.
Peter questions Jesus, and rashly pledges his loyalty.
33 Little children, I shall be with you only a little longer. You will look for me, and, as I told the Jews, where I am going, you cannot come. 34 I give you a new commandment: love one another; you must love one another just as I have loved you. 34 I give you a new commandment: love one another; you must love one another just as I have loved you. 35 It is by your love for one another, that everyone will recognise you as my disciples. 36 Simon Peter said, ‘Lord, where are you going?’ Jesus replied, ‘Now you cannot follow me where I am going, but later you shall follow me.’37 Peter said to him, ‘Why can I not follow you now? I will lay down my life for you.’ 38 ‘Lay down your life for me?’ answered Jesus. ‘In all truth I tell you, before the cock crows you will have disowned me three times.’
Peter strikes the high priest’s servant. Jesus rebukes him.
Peter denies Jesus three times.
John 18:7-18, 25-27
7 He asked them a second time, ‘Who are you looking for?’ They said, ‘Jesus the Nazarene.8 Jesus replied, ‘I have told you that I am he. If I am the one you are looking for, let these others go.” 9 This was to fulfil the words he had spoken, ‘Not one of those you gave me have I lost.’ 10 Simon Peter, who had a sword, drew it and struck the high priest’s servant, cutting off his right ear. The servant’s name was Malchus. 11 Jesus said to Peter, ‘Put your sword back in its scabbard; am I not to drink the cup that the Father has given me?’ 12 The cohort and its tribune and the Jewish guards seized Jesus and bound him. 13 They took him first to Annas, because Annas was the father-in-law of Caiaphas, who was high priest that year. 14 It was Caiaphas who had counselled the Jews, ‘It is better for one man to die for the people.’ 15 Simon Peter, with another disciple, followed Jesus. This disciple, who was known to the high priest, went with Jesus into the high priest’s palace, 16 but Peter stayed outside the door. So the other disciple, the one known to the high priest, went out, spoke to the door-keeper and brought Peter in. 17 The girl on duty at the door said to Peter, ‘Aren’t you another of that man’s disciples?’ He answered, ‘I am not.’ 18 Now it was cold, and the servants and guards had lit a charcoal fire and were standing there warming themselves; so Peter stood there too, warming himself with the others. 25 As Simon Peter stood there warming himself, someone said to him, ‘Aren’t you another of his disciples?’ He denied it saying, ‘I am not.’ 26 One of the high priest’s servants, a relation of the man whose ear Peter had cut off, said, ‘Didn’t I see you in the garden with him?’ 27 Again Peter denied it; and at once a cock crowed.
Peter sets out to go to the tomb.
The other disciple waits for Peter to go in first before going into the tomb.
1 It was very early on the first day of the week and still dark, when Mary of Magdala came to the tomb. She saw that the stone had been moved away from the tomb 2 and came running to Simon Peter and the other disciple, the one whom Jesus loved. ‘They have taken the Lord out of the tomb,’ she said, ‘and we don’t know where they have put him.’ 3 So Peter set out with the other disciple to go to the tomb. 4 They ran together, but the other disciple, running faster than Peter, reached the tomb first; 5 he bent down and saw the linen cloths lying on the ground, but did not go in. 6 Simon Peter, following him, also came up, went into the tomb, saw the linen cloths lying on the ground 6 Simon Peter, following him, also came up, went into the tomb, saw the linen cloths lying on the ground 7 and also the cloth that had been over his head; this was not with the linen cloths but rolled up in a place by itself. 8 Then the other disciple who had reached the tomb first also went in; he saw and he believed. 9 Till this moment they had still not understood the scripture, that he must rise from the dead. 10 The disciples then went back home.
Peter answers Jesus’ call to cast the net. The catch is huge.
Peter jumps into the water to go to Jesus.
Peter answers Jesus’ call to bring in the net, and drags it to the shore alone.
Jesus asks Peter three times if he loves Him, each time giving him charge of the sheep, Jesus’ sheep, the whole flock, all of Jesus’ followers.
Jesus foretells the manner of Peter’s death.
Peter is mentioned one hundred and ninety five times in the new testament, 14 times in John 21 alone, Jesus’ final encounter with the apostles in John’s gospel. 14 is not a random number, it is twice seven, the number of completion.
Jesus is mentioned 17 times in John 21, that is 14, twice seven, the number of completion, and three, which stands for the Trinity.
The next most mentioned apostle in the new testament is John, twenty-six times, followed by James, twenty four times.
1 Later on, Jesus revealed himself again to the disciples. It was by the Sea of Tiberias, and it happened like this: 2 Simon Peter, Thomas called the Twin, Nathanael from Cana in Galilee, the sons of Zebedee and two more of his disciples were together. 3 Simon Peter said, ‘I’m going fishing.’ They replied, ‘We’ll come with you.’ They went out and got into the boat but caught nothing that night. 4 When it was already light, there stood Jesus on the shore, though the disciples did not realise that it was Jesus. 5 Jesus called out, ‘Haven’t you caught anything, friends?’ And when they answered, ‘No,’ 6 he said, ‘Throw the net out to starboard and you’ll find something.’ So they threw the net out and could not haul it in because of the quantity of fish. 7 The disciple whom Jesus loved said to Peter, ‘It is the Lord.’ At these words, ‘It is the Lord,’ Simon Peter tied his outer garment round him (for he had nothing on) and jumped into the water. 8 The other disciples came on in the boat, towing the net with the fish; they were only about a hundred yards from land. 9 As soon as they came ashore they saw that there was some bread there and a charcoal fire with fish cooking on it. 10 Jesus said, ‘Bring some of the fish you have just caught.’ 11 Simon Peter went aboard and dragged the net ashore, full of big fish, one hundred and fifty-three of them; and in spite of there being so many the net was not broken. 12 Jesus said to them, ‘Come and have breakfast.’ None of the disciples was bold enough to ask, ‘Who are you?’. They knew quite well it was the Lord. 13 Jesus then stepped forward, took the bread and gave it to them, and the same with the fish. 14 This was the third time that Jesus revealed himself to the disciples after rising from the dead. 15 When they had eaten, Jesus said to Simon Peter, ‘Simon son of John, do you love me more than these others do?’ He answered, ‘Yes, Lord, you know I love you.’ Jesus said to him, ‘Feed my lambs.’ 15 When they had eaten, Jesus said to Simon Peter, ‘Simon son of John, do you love me more than these others do?’ He answered, ‘Yes, Lord, you know I love you.’ Jesus said to him, ‘Feed my lambs.’ 16 A second time he said to him, ‘Simon son of John, do you love me?’ He replied, ‘Yes, Lord, you know I love you.’ Jesus said to him, ‘Look after my sheep.’ 17 Then he said to him a third time, ‘Simon son of John, do you love me?’ Peter was hurt that he asked him a third time, ‘Do you love me?’ and said, ‘Lord, you know everything; you know I love you.’ Jesus said to him, ‘Feed my sheep. 18 In all truth I tell you, when you were young you put on your own belt and walked where you liked; but when you grow old you will stretch out your hands, and somebody else will put a belt round you and take you where you would rather not go.’ 19 In these words he indicated the kind of death by which Peter would give glory to God. After this he said, ‘Follow me.’ 20 Peter turned and saw the disciple whom Jesus loved following them — the one who had leant back close to his chest at the supper and had said to him, ‘Lord, who is it that will betray you?’ 21 Seeing him, Peter said to Jesus, ‘What about him, Lord?’ 22 Jesus answered, ‘If I want him to stay behind till I come, what does it matter to you? You are to follow me.’ 23 The rumour then went out among the brothers that this disciple would not die. Yet Jesus had not said to Peter, ‘He will not die,’ but, ‘If I want him to stay behind till I come.’